When it comes to assessing an individual’s health, analyzing bodily fluids plays a vital role. Among these fluids, urine examination serves as a valuable diagnostic tool. Through a simple and non-invasive test called Urine FEME (Urine Full Examination and Microscopic Examination), healthcare professionals can gain insights into a person’s overall health and identify any potential red flags. In this article, we will explore the various abnormal findings in urine FEME and understand their significance.

Understanding Urine FEME

Urine FEME, also known as a urinalysis, is a diagnostic test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine. It provides essential information about the urinary system and can help in diagnosing various medical conditions. By examining urine, healthcare providers can detect abnormalities that might indicate the presence of diseases or infections.

Normal Urine Components

Before delving into abnormal findings, let’s briefly review the normal components of urine. Normal urine typically consists of water, electrolytes, waste products, and various chemicals. The color of normal urine ranges from pale yellow to amber, depending on factors such as hydration and diet. The odor is usually mild and ammonia-like.

Red Flags: Abnormal Urine Findings

  • Hematuria: Hematuria refers to the presence of blood in the urine. It can be macroscopic (visible to the naked eye) or microscopic (only detectable under a microscope). Hematuria may indicate urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder cancer, or other conditions affecting the urinary system.
  • Proteinuria: Proteinuria occurs when an abnormal amount of protein is present in the urine. It can be an early sign of kidney damage or a symptom of conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease.
  • Pyuria: Pyuria refers to the presence of pus or white blood cells in the urine. It often indicates an infection in the urinary tract, such as a urinary tract infection or kidney infection.
  • Glucosuria: Glucosuria happens when glucose (sugar) is present in the urine. It is commonly associated with high blood sugar levels and may indicate diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance.
  • Ketones in Urine: The presence of ketones in urine, known as ketonuria, suggests that the body is breaking down fat for energy instead of glucose. This condition is often seen in uncontrolled diabetes, fasting, or prolonged starvation.
  • Bilirubinuria: Bilirubinuria occurs when bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced during the breakdown of red blood cells, is present in the urine. It can be a sign of liver or gallbladder dysfunction, such as hepatitis or gallstones.
  • Hemoglobinuria: Hemoglobinuria is the presence of free hemoglobin in the urine. It can be a result of various conditions, including hemolytic anemia, transfusion reactions, or severe burns.
  • Leukocyte Esterase (LE) Test: The LE test is used to detect the presence of white blood cells in the urine, indicating an infection in the urinary tract.
  • Nitrite Test: The nitrite test is performed to identify bacteria in the urine. Positive results may indicate a urinary tract infection.
  • pH Imbalance: Changes in urine pH can provide valuable insights into certain medical conditions. For example, acidic urine may indicate metabolic conditions like diabetic ketoacidosis, while alkaline urine may be associated with urinary tract infections or kidney stones.

Importance of Detecting Abnormal Findings

Detecting abnormal findings in urine FEME is crucial for early diagnosis and intervention. These red flags serve as indicators of underlying health issues, allowing healthcare professionals to initiate appropriate investigations and treatment. Timely identification of abnormal urine findings can significantly improve patient outcomes and prevent the progression of diseases.


Urine FEME provides valuable insights into an individual’s health status. By recognizing abnormal findings, such as hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, and other indicators, healthcare providers can take necessary actions to diagnose and treat potential underlying conditions. Regular urine testing and analysis are essential for maintaining optimal health and detecting any red flags that may require further investigation.